08 Jul How to control volume in breadmaking? 4/4
Maximising dough tolerance with the aid of functional ingredients.
Tolerance is a decisive factor in the development of bread dough and therefore the volume of the finished product. It depends on several elements inherent in the recipe or process. The use of accurately dosed functional ingredients serves to maximise dough tolerance and ensure the appropriate volume and appearance of the finished product. They belong to different categories (ingredients, additives, processing aids) and must comply with regulatory requirements, as well as the wishes of consumers and bakers.
Oxidants for stabilising dough
The main merit of oxidants in the baking industry lies in their ability to strengthen the gluten network by creating disulfide bridges, i.e. highly solid covalent bonds, between protein chains. Said oxidative action results in more resilience in terms of dough tenacity, which serves to prevent the dough from collapsing throughout the manufacturing process, from the mixing through to the baking stage.
Enzymes to ensure proper fermentation
- The problem:
The availability of simple fermentable sugars formed on the hydrolysis of the starch present in flour depends on the complementary action of the beta-amylases and alpha-amylases. Nevertheless, alpha-amylases are generally present in very low levels in flour, save during grain germination (conditions of humidity or prolonged spells of rain, etc.).
- The solution:
In order to ensure the satisfactory availability of sugars and supplement the action of the beta-amylases, alpha-amylases of vegetal, fungal or bacterial origin can therefore be added to the dough during mixing.
Another type of enzyme may be used in conjunction with the amylases. Pullulanases are capable of hydrolysis, a process during which they release maltodextrins and increase the potential action of the beta-amylases.
Fermentation is made easier; the dough is softened in the process in a way that will improve its development in the oven. Overdosing can lead to a sticky dough, or even crumb (Syfab, 2015).
Other enzymes to improve tolerance
- Mode of action:
Owing to their high water retention capacities, xylans, especially arabinoxylans, can limit the availability of water present in dough. Xylanases, processing aids of bacterial or fungal origin, are enzymes with the ability to reduce the amount of water retained by these carbohydrates and thus increase its availability for the other components of dough.
Adding them has the initial effect of assisting the development of the gluten network. The machinability of the dough is thus improved, rendering it more able to withstand the subsequent dividing, rounding, shaping and even sheeting operations (Pyler and Gorton, 2008).
Emulsifiers to promote gas retention
- What are they and how do they work?
Emulsifiers are amphiphilic molecules, in other words they possess a hydrophilic pole and a hydrophobic pole (like the polar lipids in flour). Lecithins were the first emulsifiers ever used and were gradually replaced by more active emulsifiers.
- Mode of action:
When added to dough, they enable the formation of finer strands of gluten, with fewer starch grains incorporated into the gluten network, thus leading to improved gas retention and therefore volume in the end product.
The addition of emulsifiers helps to improve dough elasticity and extensibility, while conferring a more finely textured crumb. Some emulsifiers also have worthwhile benefits in terms of softness and anti-blistering properties.
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